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This key is formed using two very large, complex and random prime numbers numbers that can only be divided by themselves or the number one , which cannot easily be predicted. The larger the key, the stronger the encryption. Older keys are saved with bits of computer memory, meaning each one has 2 possible combinations. But computers are now powerful enough to work out what the right combination is. The Logjam attack involves capturing the key data and then using computational power to crack its code.

As a result, security experts are advising web sites that still use these keys to move to much longer versions that are harder to predict.

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Hackers can also use something called a rainbow table to look up pre-cracked codes and use their computer to match the key against them. The more power a computer has, the faster it can work through the database of pre-cracked codes. There are still multiple combinations to check, but the work has in part already been done for them. The growing power of computers means many existing security measures are increasingly likely to become obsolete and need replacing. The number of data breaches has steadily declined since — despite an increase in the number and sophistication of state-sponsored and non-state cyber activities against Government networks.

Partnerships were forged with owners and operators of Canada's critical infrastructure, the private sector, and provincial and territorial governments. Through the Get Cyber Safe campaign, the Government of Canada supported cyber security awareness with outreach, activities, and development of targeted resources. Efforts made under the Strategy also improved the capacity of the RCMP and law enforcement agencies to combat cybercrime, including initial investments in cybercrime intelligence, investigations, and training.

Jacqueline is a small business owner who sells crafts through an online store. One day, Jacqueline receives an email from a customer who is complaining about a broken piece. The customer attaches a picture of the product, but when Jacqueline opens the attachment she finds that she is locked out of her computer. Fortunately, Jacqueline regularly backs up her computer.

She wipes her hard drive, eliminating the malware that was delivered through the email attachment and restores the backup, which allows her to access all her documents. Cyber security is the protection of digital information and the infrastructure on which it resides. Cyber security was once the domain of technical experts, but now, in our digital world, we all have a role to play in our individual and collective cyber security.

The degree to which digital technology is now integrated into our daily lives would have been unimaginable just a few years ago. From social media, smartphone applications, online shopping, networked devices, the cloud, and beyond, we rely on digital technologies for more than personal enjoyment — they are integral to the systems that underpin our economy and our way of life.

These interdependent systems include the communications networks that connect across the country and around the world, energy to heat our homes and power our industry, and air, train, and road travel we use every day. We tend to take this connectivity for granted, without pausing to reflect on its implications.

Cyber security cannot be taken for granted.

As the benefits and opportunities of technologies continue to grow, it is increasingly crucial to secure these technologies. In , the Government of Canada took the first step toward developing a new Cyber Security Strategy. The Cyber Review was launched to understand the cyber security implications of being a connected nation, and to position the Government of Canada to establish a new approach that reflects the challenges and opportunities we face. The Cyber Review sought to take stock of the evolving threats in cyberspace, to understand and explore the ways that cyber security is becoming a driver of economic prosperity, and to determine the appropriate federal role in this digital age.

Measures of Effectiveness for the Information-Age Army | RAND

The Cyber Review included in-depth engagement within the federal government cyber security community, an evaluation of our performance under the Strategy, as well as Canada's first public consultation on cyber security. The Government of Canada obtained insights and advice from experts, key stakeholders, and engaged citizens. Christine loves the convenience of the cloud. She created one central account online that manages everything from her computer, her smartphone, her fitness tracker, and even her home security system.

Through the cloud, her email and social media accounts are linked, her photos and videos are uploaded automatically, and any updates to her calendar appear across all her devices. Christine always uses the same password so that it's easy for her to remember. When she hears about a data breach affecting her email account, she realizes that someone could use her email password to access her cloud account. Concerned about protecting her privacy and her information, Christine creates a new, strong password, which she varies slightly for other online services.

It also recognizes that while cyber threats are growing in sophistication and magnitude, there is enormous potential for Canadian digital innovation and expertise in cyber security. It is designed to be adaptable and to account for a continuously changing cyber landscape. Our National Cyber Security Strategy establishes three goals in response to evolving threats, emerging opportunities, and the need for collaborative action:.

An IT security strategy guide for CIOs

The federal government will lead the effort to achieve these goals in an era when cyber security is not just a necessity, but a competitive advantage for Canada. The input received through the Cyber Review was comprehensive, sophisticated, and insightful. Responses came from the federal government cyber community, cyber security experts, business leaders, government officials, law enforcement, academics, and engaged citizens.

There is support for law enforcement's efforts to address cybercrime while protecting privacy in cyberspace. The threats we face in cyberspace are complex and rapidly evolving. Governments, businesses, organizations, and Canadians are vulnerable. With more of our economy and essential services moving online every year, the stakes could not be higher. Perpetrators of malicious cyber activity are extremely diverse, with varying aims and a wide array of techniques.

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Malicious cyber actors include individual hackers and insider threats, criminal networks, nation states, terrorist organizations, and state-sponsored actors. Sophisticated cyber attacks are often technically challenging to understand, with significant expertise required to do so. Any organization or individual can be a victim of malicious cyber activity. Victims may be individually targeted or part of a campaign affecting millions of internet users.

As Canadians put more information online, they become increasingly attractive targets for malicious cyber actors. Canadian law enforcement agencies' ability to protect Canadians from these actors, who may be anywhere in the world, is a growing challenge. Malicious cyber activity is often conducted for monetary gain. For example, phishing emails that appear to come from financial institutions can deceive people into providing their banking information. Ransomware can be deployed to encrypt files on a device or system, with a hacker demanding payment to restore access.

Data breaches can result in personal and financial information such as social insurance numbers, credit card information being stolen from organizations' online databases and subsequently sold in criminal marketplaces for activities like fraud, identity theft, or extortion. They can also be enthusiasts, attempting to demonstrate their skill at hacking and to gain notoriety.

On a larger scale, nation states and state-sponsored actors have the capability to steal our intellectual property or confidential business strategies to give their own economies a competitive advantage. Some nation states are also developing advanced cyber tools with hostile aims.

There are risks to Canada's national security and public safety if the threat is to the computer systems that underpin government systems, critical infrastructure, and democratic institutions. Terrorist organizations are also interested in acquiring advanced cyber tools to conduct attacks. It's tax season and Mohsen recently filed his taxes online.

A few days later, he receives an email from someone claiming to be a tax official, informing him that there is information missing from his file. The official makes an urgent request for additional personal information to complete his file, including his address and social insurance number.

The email notes that failure to provide this information could lead to steep penalties and even jail time. Mohsen feels suspicious about the email, and so before providing the information, he checks the Canada Revenue Agency CRA website.

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He reads that the CRA would never send emails asking individuals to divulge personal or financial information. He follows the CRA's advice by ignoring the email. As malicious cyber tools become increasingly accessible and as rates of cybercrime continue to rise, there is a real threat to Canada's economic well-being. Furthermore, as more of Canada's critical infrastructure can be controlled remotely and essential services are managed online, cyber incidents have the potential to compromise national security and public safety.

From a financial perspective, victims of cyber compromise face immediate costs to recover and restore their systems. They also face long-term costs to replace or upgrade cyber systems, as well as untold reputational costs. While start-ups are particularly vulnerable, the loss of intellectual property has contributed to financial ruin for businesses of all sizes. Cyber incidents can also be profoundly destabilizing. They can erode trust in e-commerce and government institutions and can lead people to question their continued use of digital technologies if they feel that their safety or privacy is at risk.

The internet-of-things IoT refers to objects and devices that are connected to the internet to communicate with one another and provide more efficient and customized services. The IoT is growing rapidly, with over 25 billion connected devices expected by Connecting devices to the internet opens the door to new cyber security risks. Cyber security gaps can be exploited to disrupt services through distributed denial of service DDoS campaigns or to gain entry to wider systems or private data.

In October , millions of unsecured devices were used to overwhelm the servers of Dyn, an internet infrastructure company, which then took popular websites and online services offline internationally. Beom-Jun works in the IT Department for a large financial institution. He has noticed that there have been a lot of attempts to hack into the system.

CNAS Fifth Annual Conference: America's Cyber Future

He knows that CCIRC relies on critical infrastructure organizations, like his bank, to report cyber incidents so that they can notify other sectors and international partners of trends and threats. He appreciates that by working together, they are increasing the cyber security of the organizations that Canadians rely on. As digital innovation is pushed further and as new technologies are developed, the nature of cyber threats will constantly change.

In reality, however, as things stand today quantum cryptography is not quite so close to mainstream fruition. With that in mind, how far away from quantum cryptography are we, and what needs to be achieved to make it a reality? Even if not yet available in the commercial space, we are beginning to see notable advancements in the scientific field as researchers start to deploy quantum cryptography in order to demonstrate its benefits.

This creates the potential for secure communication between cities such as London, Paris, Dublin, Manchester and Amsterdam. Unlike other existing security solutions, quantum cryptography is secure from all future advances in mathematics and computing, including from the number-crunching abilities of a quantum computer.

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